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Bronchial Artery Embolisation

TREATMENTS

What is bronchial artery embolisation?

Haemoptysis is the coughing up of blood from the lungs or bronchial tubes.

Massive hemoptysis (defined as bleeding greater than 240 to 300 mL/24 hours) carries a 50 to 85% mortality rate when treated conservatively. Massive hemoptysis can be a potentially life-threatening event. Death is most often due to asphyxiation from the aspiration of blood, leading to airway obstruction.

Causes:

  • Chronic lung diseases (such as tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, sarcoidosis, and cystic fibrosis )
  • lung cancer
  • certain cardiovascular conditions

Investigation:

  • X-RAY
  • CT – Scan
  • Bronchoscopy

Role of Surgery

Although surgical resection may be curative for those individuals with focal disease, most patients presenting with major hemoptysis have diffuse chronic lung disease and limited pulmonary reserves
Surgical intervention is hazardous and often impossible in these patients with diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

Scope Of Interventional Radiology

The development of bronchial artery embolization techniques has revolutionized the approach in cases of persistent hemoptysis. In such a scenario, interventional radiologist with modern microcatheters and guidewires selectively catheterizes the bronchial arteries, 
feeding the affected areas followed by particulate embolization thus, controls the bleeding very effectively.